Saturday, July 12, 2014

Modal verbs-can/could/have to/ must/should/didn't have/needn't have

SOURCE: Adapted from Grammar for CAE

A-Circle the correct alternative
1)Before the bridge was built we could / must/ can only get to the island by ferry
2) Up to 100.000 people must /may/ have to  experience delays.

3) I was using my pencil a minute ago. It would/ could/must be here somewhere!

4) You don’t have to/ mustn’t/ needn’t forget your sun cream. It’s going to be very hot.

5) I might/ would/ should be able to help you, but I’m not sure yet.

6) Entrance to the museum was free. We shouldn’t/ mustn’t/ didn’t need to pay to get in.

7) May/ must/should I go to the bathroom, please?

8) I shouldn’t/ couldn’t/ mustn’t  move the table. It was too heavy.

9) You can come to the meeting if you want but you don’t have to/ mustn’t/ have to.

10) I’m so hungry I can/ must/ could eat a horse!

11) Schools  can/  have to/ might play a more active role in encouraging children to tke up sports.
12) The company  should/ can/ must  hardly be described as a success.

13) I didn’t feel very well yesterday. I cannot/ couldn’t/mustn’t eat anything

14) You could/should/would look at me when I am talking to you.

15) I can’t/  mustn’t/ shouldn’t believe Mr Wade is being so confrontational.

B-Choose the correct sentence ending.

1-When  we got   to the station we found that the train was half an hour late, so we
a-didn’t need to rush after all.
b-needn’t have rushed  after all.

2-As you realized the meeting was  quite informal, so you

a-didn’t  need to wear a suit.
b-needn’t  have wore  a suit.

3-Fortunately, he wasn’t badly hurt in the accident, so he

a-needn’t  have gone to hospital.
b-didn’t need to go to hospital.

4-The house  was in good condition when I bought it, so I

a-didn’t need to to decorate before I moved in.
b-needn’t have  decorated  before I moved in.
C-Fill in the blanks using   should (not) have / be supposed to-/didn't need to/needn’t have done/ would rather and the verbs in brackets.

1-_________ (cook) for dinner  because my sister  had already cooked .
2-I _________ (go) and see the headmaster this morning.
3-My parents ____________( be) here at 8 o’clock, but they still haven’t come.
4-He invited a lot of people to his party, and there was no room to move. He ___________ invited so many people.
5- I ___________let her know what was happening but I forgot.
6-They ___________ (sack) him. He was the most creative person on their team.
7- They _____________ (remember) that their guests don't eat pork.
8-I __________(walk) than take a bus.
9-It was a waste of money. I ___________(buy) it.
10- Lucy___________to come to lunch. What’s happened? 
11- I______________ you didn’t turn the radio on.
12- Cats______________to be afraid of dogs, but ours isn’t.
13- I _____________ (go) to the supermarket because we
had plenty of food
14-I _____________(wash) the dishes because there 

Modals exercises

SOURCE: Adapted from

A) Fill in the blanks with    can     could     have to      must       might      should

  1. Ted’s flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He ------------- be exhausted after such a long flight. He ------------- prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.

2. If you want to get a better feeling for how the city is laid out, you -----------
walk downtown and explore the waterfront.

3. Hiking the trail to the peak ------------ be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes. You ------------ research the route a little more before you attempt the ascent.

4. When you have a small child in the house, you ------------ leave small objects lying around. Such objects ------------ be swallowed, causing serious injury or even death.

5. Dave: ----------- you hold your breath for more than a minute?
Nathan: No, I can't.

6. Jenny's engagement ring is enormous! It ----------- have cost a fortune.

7. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. If they don't get enough water, they      ------------ die.

8. I ----------- speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. But after we moved back to Canada, I had very little exposure to the language and forgot almost everything I knew as a child. Now, I -------------just say a few things in the language.

9. The book is optional. My professor said we ------------ read it if we needed extra credit. But we ----------- read it if we don't want to.

10. Leo: Where is the spatula? It ------------- be in this drawer but it's not here.
Nancy: I just did a load of dishes last night and they're still in the dish washer.  It -------------- be in there. That's the only other place it -------------- be.

B) Rewrite the sentences with   can, may, must or have to.

 Example: Is that all right if I borrow your pen?

                 May/Can I borrow your pen?

1)  Don't park your car on bends. It is illegal.

 You ....................................................................

2)  Perhaps she will agree with it. Who knows?

 She .....................................................................

3)  Our teacher asked us to tidy the classroom.

 We .....................................................................

4)  I need your help. It's too much work for me.

 You ....................................................................

5)  Don't worry about dinner. I'll make it.

 You ....................................................................

6)  It is not necessary to be there.

 We ..................................................................... 

7)  Why don't you stay with us? No problem!

You ....................................................................



You work for a large company based in a town centre. Most of the employees of the company drive to work. The director of the company has asked you to prepare a proposal on reducing car use by employees. Write your proposal using the modals you have learned.(Taken from Grammar for CAE)


Gerunds-Infinitives( hate/stop/try/mean....)

GERUNDS-INFINITIVES (regret/remember/stop/try/forget/mean…)
SOURCE: Adapted from

 Complete each sentence, using a gerund or an infinitive.
1-I regret------------- (be) late to the interview.
2- I remember------------------ (mention) the meeting yesterday.
3- He remembered ---------------- (turn off) the lights before he left.
4- He stopped smoking for health reasons.
5- We regret --------------------- (inform) you that your position at the company is being eliminated.
6- She can't find a job. She tried---------------------- (look) in the paper, but there was nothing. She tried ---------------------ask friends and family, but nobody knew of anything. She also tried ---------------go shop to shop, but nobody was hiring.
7- I remember -------------- (go) to the beach when I was a child.
8- He gave us a lecture on the Greek history. And then he went on to show us his photos from Greece.
9- Have we really studied this topic before? I forget------------
(read)about it.

10- She tried --------------- (catch) the bus, but she couldn’t run fast enough.
11- My boss came into the room, so I stopped--------------- (browse ) the internet

12- She was shopping and she stopped ------------------ (get) a cup of coffee.
13-She tried --------------- (climb) the tree, but she couldn't even get off the ground.
14- The company regrets----------------(inform)  employees that the London office will close

15- She regrets-------------- (leave) school when she was sixteen. She wishes that she had studied more and then gone to university.
16- I regret---------- (go) to bed so late. I’m really tired today.
17- I wanted to stop ------------- (smoke), so I tried using nicotine
18- He means-------------- (earn ) as much money as he could buy a house before he returns.
19- I regret -------------- (tell) you that the train has been delayed.
20- There was a fire alarm, so I stopped ------------ (eat) and went outside.
21- You have forgotten your homework again. That means -------------- (phone) your mother.
22- I tried---------------( run ) after the dog, but I was too slow.
23- I meant-------------- (phone) your mother, but my mobile didn't work.
24- The new Prime Minister is determined to end the anarchy and smuggling. Perhaps it will mean ----------------(get) exhausted or (get) killed by outlaws. But he seems fearless.
25-. My grandmother stopped --------------------(drive) when she was 85.
26- You have forgotten your homework again. That means ----------------(phone) your mother.
27- I regret----------------- (laugh) at the lame boy when he fell to the ground.
29- After dinner he went on ------------------- (show) us his photos.
30- I tried---------- (lift) the suitcase, but it was too heavy
31- He gave us a lecture on the Greek history. And then he went on ----------------- show us his photos from Greece.
32- We can go to Spain. But it means ------------------- (spend) more money.

Gerunds-Infinitives exercises

SOURCE: Adapted from

A.   Complete the sentences with a gerund or an infinitive.

1. My sister doesn't want to come with us because she hates ___________ (do) windsurfing.

2. The baby keeps crying. Does his father mind ___________ (take) care of him a bit.

3. Jenny has problems with her mother in law. As far as it seems, she is tired of
____________(fight) with her.

4. Two students applied for the Doctorate program and they look forward to 
____________ (have) a positive reply from the university.

5. After hearing a noise, Ken turned the lights on ______________(see) everything clearly.

6. Experts say that it is pretty dangerous______________(do) bungee jumping.

7. Even though Brian has many good friends, he sometimes enjoys _________(be) alone.

8. Harry's wife is fed up with __________ (clean) the house on her own.

9. Jerry and Loyd enjoyed ___________(play) video games.
Fill in the blanks with gerund or infinitive.

10. Belinda is looking forward to ___________(have) a reply from his friend.

11. Hey, you look tired! How about ____________ (take) a break from work for a bit?

12. The clients decided _____________(cancel) the contract.

13. Ken's lawyer advised him _____________(call) his wife as soon as possible.

14. Children enjoy ____________ (do) an activity more if they do it in a group.
15. I have studied as hard as I could, so I expect ____________ (pass) this exam.

B. Complete the following exercise with gerund or infinitive forms of the indicated verbs.

Traffic Report

You will have trouble 1--------------- (commute) this afternoon, folks. Interstate 5 is blocked for two miles north and south of 80th Street, so I strongly suggest 2---------(use) an alternate route if possible. Construction on the Factoria interchange has caused slowing  on I-405, so use caution there. Repairs on the Evergreen Point Bridge  were expected  to have been completed  by 6:00 A.M. today, but the bridge is still closed. The Highway Department issued a statement apologizing for  3------------( cause) further inconvenience to motorists, but the repairs are taking longer than planned. The department  expected 4--------------( finish) repairs by 5:00 A.M. Tuesday.

C)  Complete the telephone call


S:         Good morning, ACME Enterprises.

A:        Hello, I'd like  ___________(speak) to Mr Okinawa.
S:         Who's calling?

A:        Karl Maier, from Schwenningen. I wonder if I could ___________ (see) him this week?

S:         I'm afraid Mr Okinawa is not free this week. He tried ___________  (reach) you by phone several times last week, but you were in New York.

A:        Yes, I'm sorry. I remember _____________ (ask) him to call me, but I forgot
            ________________ (tell) him I'd be away.

S:         If he want ____________ (see) you , I’ll call you back .

A:        I'll look forward to ____________ (hear) from him.

S:         Okay. Thank you for ______________(call). We'll talk again next week.

A:        Fine. Bye for now.